The USTR has primary responsibility for the administration of U.S. trade agreements. This includes monitoring the implementation of trade agreements with the United States by our trading partners, enforcing America`s rights under those agreements, and negotiating and signing trade agreements that advance the president`s trade policy. The United States has free trade agreements (FTAs) with 20 countries. These free trade agreements are based on the WTO Agreement and include broader and stricter disciplines than the WTO Agreement. Many of our free trade agreements are bilateral agreements between two governments. But some, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Free Trade Agreement between the Dominican Republic, Central America and the United States, are multilateral agreements between several parties. There are a variety of trade agreements; where some are quite complex (European Union), while others are less intense (North American Free Trade Agreement).  The degree of economic integration that results depends on the specific nature of the trade pacts and policies adopted by the trading bloc: the United States concludes preferential trade agreements for economic and non-economic reasons. These agreements allow the United States and its partner countries to reap the economic benefits of increased trade and investment. In addition, agreements sometimes harmonize laws and regulations that, among other things, make the cost of operating businesses in other countries more similar to that of the United States. An important non-economic reason for the establishment of APTs is the achievement of foreign policy objectives.
These objectives include support for U.S. economies. Allies and the promotion of the adoption of privileged national policies such as the protection of the environment or the strengthening of workers` rights. The United States currently has a number of free trade agreements in place. These include multinational agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which covers the United States, Canada and Mexico, and the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), which covers most Central American countries. There are also separate trade agreements with countries ranging from Australia to Peru. The anti-globalization movement rejects such agreements almost by definition, but some groups that are generally allied with this movement,.B such as the Green Parties, are striving for fair trade or secure trade regulations that mitigate the real and perceived negative effects of globalization. The benefits of free trade were described in On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, published in 1817 by the economist David Ricardo. NAFTA has not eliminated regulatory requirements for businesses that wish to trade internationally, such as rules of origin. B and documentation requirements that determine whether certain goods may be traded under NAFTA. The free trade agreement also includes administrative, civil and criminal penalties for companies that violate the laws or customs procedures of the three countries.
Trade agreements are often politically controversial because they can change economic practices and deepen interdependence with trading partners. Increasing efficiency through “free trade” is a common goal. In most cases, governments support other trade agreements. Not surprisingly, financial markets see the other side of the coin. Free trade is an opportunity to open up another part of the world to domestic producers. However, not everyone benefits from the expansion of trade. Although increased trade is unlikely to have a significant impact on overall employment, trade can affect different workers in different ways. Workers in professions, firms and industries that develop as a result of trade may earn more money, while workers in shrinking professions, businesses and industries may earn less money or experience above-average unemployment.
These losses can be temporary or permanent. Nevertheless, economic and historical data suggest that the diffuse and long-term benefits of international trade outweigh the concentrated short-term costs. This conclusion was strongly supported by economists throughout the process. Normal trade relations monitor all aspects of trade and commerce between the two countries. The conditions that are improved under trade agreements are tariff reductions and easier access to each other`s markets. The logic of formal trade agreements is that they describe what is agreed and what sanctions apply in the event of a deviation from the rules set out in the agreement.  Trade agreements therefore make misunderstandings less likely and give confidence to both parties that fraud will be punished; this increases the likelihood of long-term cooperation.  An international organization such as the IMF can provide additional incentives for cooperation by monitoring compliance with agreements and informing third countries of violations.  Monitoring by international bodies may be necessary to uncover non-tariff barriers, which are disguised attempts to create barriers to trade.
 Preferential trade agreements also establish trade rules that, among other things, reduce differences in operating costs between member countries. For example, some APTs set minimum standards for labour and the environment and the protection of intellectual property. While the cost of compliance is high, these types of rules-based reforms can hamper trade and investment flows and make some firms less competitive in foreign markets. Or there could be a policy that exempts certain products from duty-free status in order to protect domestic producers from foreign competition in their industries. There are three different types of trade agreements. The first is a unilateral trade agreement, which occurs when one country wants certain restrictions to be enforced but no other country wants them to be imposed. .